· Picture index
     · Kubanek, 2001
     · Art and Science
      * Contents
     · M. Pei 1966
     · How to learn
     · A. De Velics
     · 1914
     · Bendin, 1993
     · Radonvilliers,
     · 1786
     · Dahl, 1999
     · Crawford, 1930
     · Ohme,  1987
     · Gruhn, 1984
     · Sprachen Lernen
     · Bodmer, 1987
     · Farber, 1991
     · Fuller, 1987
     · Hawk, 2000
     · Sprachen der
     · Welt
     · T. Huebener 1961
     · M. Pei 1966 II
     · M. Weiss 1808
   · Out of print
   · Languages
   · Polyglots
   · Miscellaneous

Learn That Language Now -- Learn a New Language 3 Times Faster
The Art and Science of Learning Languages: Table of Content
Home > Books > Language Learning > Art and Science > Contents

Mario Pei, 1966, Harper & Row, New York, soft cover, ISBN 06-013323-6, 299 pages, 144 mm X 215 mm X 30 mm
Acknowledgements 1
Part I - The art of learning languages 4
Amorey Gethin (AG) and Erik V. Gunnemark (EVG)
Chapter 1 - Basics 1. Who can and who should learn languages7
§1 A' talent for languages' is not so rare as you may think §2 National differences §3 Lack of talent is not inborn; cultural influence are stronger §4 Think rationally about learning languages §5 Resist bad influence on your talent, and rely on yourself §6 A very few people may have permanent difficulties §7 A good memory is not necessary §8 Bilingual people don't have particularly good memories §9 Connect foreign words to 'things', not to words in your own language §10 What motives are effective for language learning? The need for an inquisitive attitude §11 Teaching languages to children is not effective; adults learn better §12 Language learning should be enjoyed, not imposed §13 Learning a language is observing §14 You must do the work yourself Notes
Chapter 2 - Basics 2. Understanding the basic nature of languages17
§15 Languages are translations of 'life', not of other languages §16 Every language is different and divides the world up differently §17 Prepositions don't fit from one language to another §18 Words in one language do not usually mean exactly the same as words in  another language §19 Whole expressions, too, are different in different languages §20 Do  not learn by translating into your own language §21 Translation is essential as a practical  instrument for beginners: it is the translation 'mentality' that is dangerous §22 Translating is  not the path to complete and certain understanding §23 Translation diverts your attention  to the wrong thing §24 Translating acts as a barrier to understanding speech §25 Translating can make language learning far more difficult, sometimes for whole countries §26 Translating may also spoil the enjoyment §27 Good translators don't translate Note
Chapter 3 - Basics 3. Basic practical principles of learning 25
§28 When and where you should observe - listening and reading §29 Try to concentrate on exactly how people say things §30 Observing through reading §31 Learning how the letters  of other languages are pronounced §32 What you should observe §33 It is important to  notice the contexts in which words are used §34 Different levels of knowledge; active and  passive knowledge §35 The importance of organization, independence and self-confidence §36 The need for concentration, time, repetition and practice §37 More time, and intensive study, are needed for difficult languages
Chapter 4 - Learning and lessons 1. How useful are teachers?32
§38 Languages are learned, not taught §39 Language learning has not improved §40 Teachers can't do the learning for you §41 What can teachers do? Explain grammar? §42 Explain words? §43 'Student participation' §44 Lessons should do what students cannot do by themselves §45 Teachers should answer and ask questions; they must know how the language works §46 The problem of exercises §47 Classes take time and effort away from learning §48 The need for a completely new sort of language lesson §49 We need language  guides, not teachers §50 Co-operative language guides §51 How to ask questions Notes
Chapter 5 - Learning and lessons 2.With or without lessons42
§52 AG's experience of learning languages without lessons §53 How eagerness produced  the methods for getting on with the 'real thing' with the minimum of fuss §54 Deciding whether to take lessons 155 Find out about the lessons before signing up §56 Lessons to help you pass exams §57 Intensive courses. Are they worthwhile? §58 Choosing and preparing for an intensive course; follow-up §59 Trial lessons §60 Studying abroad: plan and prepare in advance §61 Studying abroad: go on a course or study on your own? §62 Two other good reasons for taking lessons §63 Working and learning as an au pair §64 Language laboratories §65 Computer assisted language learning §66 Al1 the things you can do on your own Note
Chapter 6 - Pronunciation57
§67 It is important to aim at a reasonable accent from the beginning §68 'Good enough' pronunciation §69 The realities of learning pronunciation §70 Do not study the phonetics, but pay attention to the particular sounds of each language §71 The international phonetic  alphabet §72 The problems of pronunciation are mainly psychological; the key is listening §73 The temptation to pronounce what you see, not what you hear §74 Listening too much to yourself instead of to native speakers §75 Self-consciousness §76 Imitating for fun §77 Psychological mysteries §78 Becoming less mentally flexible §79 Being careless or lazy §80 A physical difficulty §81 Finding out, listening and imitating - and being eager §82 Be determined that you can and will get it right §83 Intonation §84 What you need for a good accent §85 What to listen to - radio, television, tapes §86 Listen directly to your own voice, not to tapes of it §87 Which accent? 188 Two equally good approaches to pronunciation Notes
Chapter 7 - Vocabulary 1. Principles and erst steps72

§89 What words do you need to know? §90 Active be and passive vocabulary, and transparent vocabulary 191 Transparency can be different to different people §92 Being selective is half
the secret §93 The basic vocabulary §94 One has to crawl before one can walk: the 'active minimum' §95 Concentrate on central words! §96 Don't learn unnecessary synonyms §97 Don't bother about marginal 'interest' words in the beginning §98 Important central  'interest' words §99 Confidence comes from knowing common phrases ell §00 The most important phrases first! §11 Learn one-word phrases before longer phrases §102 Complete question phrases, and longer phrases §103 Idioms, sayings and proverbs §104 Don't waste energy and time on fancy phrases §105 Two ways of learning the basic vocabulary §106 Remembering words and phrases - the basis of language learning §107 The best 'surroundings' and contexts for learning §108 Learning on the basis of one's own language §109 Practicalities, including constant attention to the problem §110 Organizing the words and phrases §111 Learn words with other words §112 Use both your aural and your visual memory when you learn phrases §113 Learn 'ensemble' languages in sentences - not word by word §114 Becoming independent of one's own language Notes 

Chapter 8 - Vocabulary 2. How to learn many words88
§115 After the basic words be greedy for new words §116 You need the vocabulary you need! §117 Dictionaries - too often the great enemies of word-learning §118 What words are and what they are not §119 The great blessing of being a grown-up §120 See and hear as many words as you can; learn true meanings in 'living' contexts: newspapers, magazines,  books, the radio §121 Learning the words of our own language §122 Learning meanings from context §123 Imagine blanks in the text §124 Two sorts of context §125 Favourite words §126 The disadvantage of being an adult §127 Memory aids §128 The dangers of the = sign §129 Prepositions §130 More haste, less speed §131 AG's personal failure and success at learning vocabulary §132 Notes and lists §133 Concentrate on one meaning at a time Note
Chapter 9 - Vocabulary 3. Dictionaries99
§134 Choosing a dictionary §135 Good and bad dictionaries §136 Dictionaries - which way round? §137 Dictionaries and translation §138 Monolingual or bilingual dictionaries?  §139 There are very few true synonyms §140 How monolingual dictionaries mislead §141 The temptation to resist new words §142 The trap of thesauruses §143 The trouble with definitions §144 The false logic of monolingual dictionaries §145 How to use bilingual dictionaries Notes
Chapter 10 - Grammar108

§146 What grammar is - don't be frightened of it! §147 The small part of grammar that is not meaning §148 What grammatical logic is and isn't §149 There is no clear distinction  between grammar and vocabulary §150 How important is grammar? §151 Learning grammar: EVG'S approach §152 Learning grammar: AG's approach §153 Indexes are essential in grammar or course books §154 The weaknesses of courses §155 False and real tests of progress §156 The need for general exercises §157 Doing exercises §158 Observe grammar in action! §159 Making the grammar a natural part of you §160 Mistakes in books on grammar §161 Missing the essence of grammar §162 Study the special characteristics of each particular foreign grammar §163 Grammar examples §164 Planning the grammar of what you say in advance §165 Making your own grammar charts §166 Using other systematic arrangements of grammar Notes 

Chapter 11 - Reading to observe126

§167 Intensive reading §168 A sample passage for intensive reading §169 A test on how well you observed the passage §170 What you could learn from the passage §171 Work you can do yourself, with anything written, at any time §172 Learn the technique you can 
apply indefinitely §173 Useful material for intensive reading §174 Ask questions about what you read! §175 The answers to the questions in §169 §176 Observing with the help of computers §177 Parallel texts are useful for beginners

Chapter 12 - Reading, listening, spewing and writing137

§178 Words are tie foundation of knowing languages §179 Being able to read is most useful linguistic skill for most people §180 Stop 'crawling' if you can 'walk' §181 Fiction or non-fiction? §182 Three essentials for making progress with your reading §183 Listening
§184 'lt is easy to speak but difficult to understand' - the ears must mature §185 Lip-reading; telephone conversations §186 Grammar and listening can help each other §187 Stay at home to learn what to speak; go out to practise speaking §188 Adapt what you say to your vocabulary! §189 Writing - the extended arm of speech §190 It can take a long time to learn to write a foreign language §191 Always think carefully about your writing; don't repeat mistakes §192 Keep all your old written work - for you and for your language guide Notes

Chapter 13 - Mistakes148
§193 How important are mistakes? §194 Grammar mistakes §195 The importance of mistakes varies according to your purpose §196 Decide  not to make mistakes §197 The  problem is remembering the problem §198 Make a note of your 'favourite' mistakes  §199 Can one avoid making mistakes even if one does not have a teacher or guide to help one? §200 Being corrected when you speak §201 Being corrected when you write §202 Choosing the right person to correct your mistakes §203 How much should a corrector correct? §204 How conscientious is the correcting? §205 Correcting mistakes is very boring §206 Possible correcting methods: by private teacher §207 Corrections need in the end to be in your head, not on pieces of paper! §208 Possible correcting methods: by computer Notes
Chapter 14 - A summary of practical principles of good language learning158
§209 The foundations of foreign-language learning §210 Good attitudes to learning languages §211 The art of NOT learning languages
Part II - Facts about languages
Erik M Gunnemark
Chapter 15 - The world's most important languages161
§212 The 'big' languages §213 English, German and French
Chapter 16 - How many words are there?163
§214 The numbers of words in modern languages; compound words §215 Ancient vocabularies §216 Active vocabularies in dialects §217 Polysynthetic and agglutinative languages
Chapter 17 - Transparent languages165
§218 What we mean by 'transparent words' §219 Transparency as an aid to reading and speaking §220 Some examples of transparent words §221 'Transparent' speech §222 More patterns linking languages §223 Examples of the degrees of transparency between various languages §224 Stepping-stone languages §225 Lists of non-transparent words Note
Chapter 18 - International and puristic words172
§226 International words §227 How many words are 'international' §228 All is not 'international' that looks it §229 Loan words from eastern languages §230 The international word ''hooligan'' §231 Puristic words instead of international words §232 Free entry for foreign words into English §233 German is no longer puristic §234 Purism in the Slavonic languages §235 Modern Greek is puristic but at the same time international §236 Four examples of Finnish and icelandic purism §237 International and puristic names of the months
Chapter 19 - False friends and unreliable friends177
§238 False friends §239 Unreliable friends
Chapter 20 - Easy and difficult languages180
§240 What makes a language difficult §241 Judging whether a language is easy or difficult §242 Which are the difficult languages? §243 Easy and difficult words to learn: the importance of spelling §244 Long words
Chapter 21 - How long does it take to learn a language? 183
§245 How long depends on organization and concentration and on how difficult §246 Ignorance and wishful thinking §247 Minimum times §248 How many words can one learn per week? §249 How many hours of study: rules of thumb
Chapter 22 - How many words does one need to know?186
§250 The percentage of the total spoken and total written vocabulary of a language that is made up of a given number of words §251 From 500 to 100,000 words - different vocabularies for different needs §252 Basic word lists; subjectivity §253 The Dutch basic word list
Chapter 23 - Languages with difficult pronunciation189
§254 The pronunciation is often easier than you may think §255 Spelling and pronunciation in English
Chapter 24 - Features of grammar191
§256 Accidence and syntax §257 Languages with easy or difficult grammar Note
Chapter 25 - Alphabets193
§258 Unfamiliar alphabets - how difficult are they?

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