Register  Login  Active Topics  Maps  

Chung at work / Chung pri práci

 Language Learning Forum : Language Learning Log Post Reply
541 messages over 68 pages: << Previous 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 ... 58 ... 67 68 Next >>
Chung
Diglot
Senior Member
Joined 4354 days ago

4232 posts - 4069 votes 
20 sounds
Speaks: English*, French
Studies: Polish, Slovak, Uzbek, Turkish, Korean, Finnish

 
 Message 457 of 541
03 August 2014 at 11:07pm | IP Logged 
SLOVAK

As noted here, I’m compiling a list of verbs that use prefixes in derivation or to indicate changes in aspect.



(From S H O O T Y... som Grogy)

4) “Aren’t you overdoing it? It’s just the first time.”
5) “You’re probably right.”
6) “But I don’t know how to get up.”
Convention for vocabulary in the comic strip that's unfamiliar to me (i.e. needed to consult a dictionary)

NOUNS & ADJECTIVES: nominative singular (genitive singular)
VERBS (where applicable using convention of imperfective > perfective): infinitive (3rd person singular present tense [imperfective verb] / future tense [perfective verb], 3rd person plural present tense [imperfective verb] / future tense [perfective verb])
ADVERBS & INTERJECTIONS: no extra information given

---

See here for the rationale for and information about this exercise in comparing Czech and Slovak.

The Czech sentences are red while the Slovak ones are blue. (…) denotes text that has been omitted because its subject matter does not tie back to the common translation thus making it ineligible for grammatical or lexical comparison.

Unit 15

Dialog 1 / Dialóg 1

H: Co bys dělal, kdybys zítra vyhrál hromadu peněz? Kdyby ses stal najednou milionářem? Přestal bys pracovat?

H: Čo by si robil, keby si zajtra vyhral hŕbu peňazí? Keby si sa stal odrazu milionárom? Prestal by si pracovať?

“What would you do if tomorrow you won a pile of money? If you’d suddenly become a millionare? Would you stop working?”

Cz: kdyby | Sk: keby “if” (for conditional, hypothetical or
unlikely statements)

Each conjunction is unique to its own language despite being moderately similarity and
sharing the same conditional clitic, by.

The conditional present in each of Czech and Slovak is also used to express hypothetical or unlikely statements for which other languages may use subjunctive. However, the formation of the conditional present diverges as each language uses different forms or structures to denote the verb’s subject.

E.g.

“to do”
Cz: dělat | Sk: robiť

“I would do, you would do, he would do, we would do, you would do, they would do” (masculine subjects)
Standard Cz: dělal bych, dělal bys, dělal by, dělali bychom, dělali byste, dělali by
Colloquial Cz: dělal bysem*, dělal bys, dělal by, dělali bysme, dělali byste, dělali by
Sk: robil by som, robil by si, robil by, robili by sme, robili by ste, robili by

“I would do, you would do, she would do, we would do, you would do, they would do” (feminine subjects)
Standard Cz: dělala bych, dělala bys, dělala by, dělaly bychom, dělaly byste, dělaly by
Colloquial Cz: dělala bysem*, dělala bys, dělala by, dělaly bysme, dělaly byste, dělaly by
Sk: robila by som, robila by si, robila by, robili by sme, robili by ste, robili by

“I would do, you would do, it would do, we would do, you would do, they would do” (neuter subjects**)
Standard Cz: dělalo bych, dělalo bys, dělalo by, dělala bychom, dělala byste, dělala by
Colloquial Cz: dělalo bysem*, dělalo bys, dělalo by, dělala bysme, dělala byste, dělala by
Sk: robilo by som, robilo by si, robilo by, robili by sme, robili by ste, robili by

* bysem is not used frequently and some speakers may not even consider it acceptable for Colloquial Czech.

** Somewhat contrived if referring to subjects other than 3rd person, although a grammatically neuter subject using dítě / dieťa “child” is possible.

In addition to the differences in first and second persons (e.g. bych vs. by som), these patterns also illustrate that the Czech participle makes distinctions for the subject’s gender in singular and plural whereas Slovak does so only in singular (e.g. dělal/a by vs. robil/a by “he/she would do” BUT dělali by and dělaly by correspond just to robili by “they would do”)

Cz: vyhrál (< vyhrát) | Sk: vyhral (< vyhrať) ~ “won”

Different spelling reflects different pronunciation despite the similarity. Here the Czech verb has long a (á) whereas the Slovak cognate has a short one (a).

Cz: hromada | Sk: hŕba “pile”

hromada also exists in Slovak as a synonym for hŕba.

Cz: peníze | Sk: peniaze “money”

Different spelling reflects different pronunciation despite high similarity.

Cz: kdyby ses stal... | Sk: keby si sa stal... “if you would become...”

Another difference between colloquial Czech and Slovak lies in how each language places the marker of the 2nd person singular in past tense and conditional of reflexive verbs.

E.g.

“to be glad”
Coll. Cz: těšit se
Sk: tešiť sa

“I am glad, I was glad, I would be glad” (1st person singular, masculine)
Coll. Cz: těším se, těšil jsem se, těšil bych se
Sk: teším sa, tešil som sa, tešil by som sa

“you are glad, you were glad, you would be glad” (2nd person singular, masculine)
Coll. Cz: těšíš se, těšil ses, těšil by ses
Sk: tešíš sa, tešil si sa, tešil by si sa

“to rest”
Coll. Cz: odpočinout si
Sk: odpočinút si

“I’ll rest, I rested, I would rest” (1st person singular, feminine)
Coll. Cz: odpočinu si, odpočinula jsem si, odpočinula bych si
Sk: odpočiniem si, odpočinula som si, odpočinula by som si

“you’ll rest, you rested, you would rest” (2nd person singular, feminine)
Coll. Cz: odpočineš si, odpočinula sis, odpočinula by sis
Sk: odpočinieš si, odpočinula si si, odpočinula by si si

In colloquial Czech, the marker for the 2nd person singular (s) is attached to the reflexive pronoun se / si but in Slovak, the marker is separate (on the pattern of the rest of the conjugation) and immediately precedes the reflexive pronoun even if the repetition of si may appear strange to the uninitiated.

In standard Czech, the marker for 2nd person singular in past tense and conditional of reflexive verbs occurs analogously to the Slovak structure, although I have rarely encountered this.

Standard Cz: Odpočinula (by) jsi si... Těšil (by) jsi se...
Coll. Cz: Odpočinula (by) sis... Těšil (by) ses...
Sk: Odpočinula (by) si si... Těsil (by) si sa...

I suspect that addressing someone in 2nd person singular is as a rule done in colloquial or informal settings, and so using the standard form in Czech here could come off as stilted despite being grammatical.

Cz: najednou | Sk: odrazu “suddenly, all at once”

Each word is unique to its language however both words are synonymous with náhle which is common to both languages.

Cz: milionářem (< milionář) | Sk: milionárom (< milionár) “millionaire” (instrumental)

Note difference in masculine instrumental ending (-em vs. -om) as well as the difference in the derivational ending (-ář vs. -ár)


M: To víš že jo. Hned bych odešel z práce. Prodal bych svůj malý byt na Žižkově a koupil bych si krásnou starou vilu s velikou zahradou. A několik luxusních aut. A cestoval bych po světě. A ty?

M: Hej, hneď by som prestal pracovať. Predal by som svoj malý byt v Petržalke a kúpil by som si krásnu starú vilu s veľkou záhradou. A tiež zopár luxusných áut. A cestoval by som po svete. A ty?

You better believe it. I’d quit work right away. / Yup, I’d stop working right away.. I’d sell my small apartment in Žižkov / Petržalka and buy myself a beautiful old villa with a big garden. And also several luxury cars. And I’d travel around the world. How about you?”

To víš že jo and the similar To se ví že jo are colloquial expressions and have no formal equivalent in Slovak. They are used to answer questions positively and emphasize the answerer’s enthusiasm.

Cz: svůj | Sk: svoj “one’s own”

Different spelling reflects different pronunciation, small as the difference is.

Cz: několik | Sk: zopár “several”

Each word is codified for its own language, however the Slovak cognate of několik is niekoľko which is also more formal than zopár.

Cz: aut (< auto) | Sk: áut (< auto) “cars” (genitive plural)

A declensional difference despite each language having the same basic form (i.e. nominative singular). In genitive plural, the initial a is lengthened in Slovak but not in Czech.

Cz: po světě (< svět) | Sk: po svete (< svet)

Spelling difference reflects difference in pronunciation. Compare the phrase in Czech and Slovak, and basic forms in Czech and Slovak.


H: Ty peníze by se mi samozřejmě hodily, ale rozhodně bych nepřestala chodit do práce, protože mě ta práce v knihovně velmi baví. Asi bych se strašně nudila, kdybych neměla zaměstnání nebo nějakou stálou práci. Ale peníze nehrají v mém životě až tak velkou roli. Ne. Na tvém místě bych neodešla z práce. I kdyby mi někdo dal milion dolarů.

H: Zišli by sa mi tie peniaze, ale rozhodne by som neprestala chodiť do práce, lebo ma to miesto v knižnici veľmi baví. Asi by som sa strašne nudila, keby som nemala zamestnanie alebo nejakú stálu prácu. Ale peniaze nehrajú v mojom živote až takú veľkú rolu. Nie. Na tvojom mieste by som neodišla z roboty. Aj keby mi niekto dal milión dolárov.

“That money would of course come in handy, but I’d for sure not stop going to work because I have a lot of fun working at the library. I’d probably be awfully bored if I didn’t have a job or some kind of steady work. However money doesn’t play that big a role in my life. No. I wouldn’t quit my job in your place even if someone would give me a million dollars.”

Cz: hodit se | Sk: zísť sa “to come in handy”

Although each verb is the typical way to express the idea of “to come in handy”, the Czech cognate of zísť sa, sejít se, is marked as being a dialectal alternative to hodit se in this meaning. Conversely, the Slovak cognate of hodit se, hodiť sa, could also be used in the same way as its Czech counterpart.

Cz: práce | Sk: robota “work”

The Slovak cognate of práce is práca and is the usual way to translate “work”. In Czech robota is a historical term referring to a serf's labour but it also is an expressive and dialectal way to describe work that is unpleasant, difficult or taxing (perhaps “toil” would be a suitable translation). In Slovak, robota nowadays can also refer to work of any sort, in addition to paid employment, in addition to the historical meaning of a serf’s labour for a noble.

Cz: milion | Sk: milión “million”

In Czech, milión which is identical to the Slovak form, is an alternative to milion as used in the dialogue.

All other differences have been covered in previous entries.

2 persons have voted this message useful



stelingo
Hexaglot
Senior Member
United Kingdom
Joined 3030 days ago

722 posts - 357 votes 
Speaks: English*, Spanish, Portuguese, French, German, Italian
Studies: Russian, Czech, Polish, Greek, Mandarin

 
 Message 458 of 541
04 August 2014 at 4:48am | IP Logged 
I was under the impression from all the grammar and text books I've gone through that Odpočinula (by)
sis... Těšil (by) ses... etc were standard Czech, and that Odpočinula (by) jsi si... Těšil (by) jsi se... etc were
incorrect. As for the conditional I've noticed one of my Czech friends, when he writes on Fb, always uses a
construction similar to Slovak: dĕlal by jsem, dělal by jsi etc.



Chung
Diglot
Senior Member
Joined 4354 days ago

4232 posts - 4069 votes 
20 sounds
Speaks: English*, French
Studies: Polish, Slovak, Uzbek, Turkish, Korean, Finnish

 
 Message 459 of 541
04 August 2014 at 6:01am | IP Logged 
stelingo wrote:
I was under the impression from all the grammar and text books I've gone through that Odpočinula (by)
sis... Těšil (by) ses... etc were standard Czech, and that Odpočinula (by) jsi si... Těšil (by) jsi se... etc were
incorrect. As for the conditional I've noticed one of my Czech friends, when he writes on Fb, always uses a
construction similar to Slovak: dĕlal by jsem, dělal by jsi etc.


I was under a similar impression and I've never thought twice about using ses and sis for jsi se and jsi si respectively.

However when I looked this particular bit up in Sova's course from the communist era, I came upon the following:

Sova, Miloš. “A Practical Czech Course for English-speaking Students”. Prague: Státní Pedagogické Nakladatelství, 1962. p. 439 wrote:
In colloquial speech there are compound forms ses and sis which are the outcome of se (si) plus the abbreviated form of the auxillary verb jsi > s:

ty jsi se nemyl (you have not washed); co jsi si přál? (what did you wish? [1])

ty ses nemyl; co sis přál?


I do acknowledge that Sova's course is about 50 years old, though.



hribecek
Triglot
Senior Member
Czech Republic
Joined 2547 days ago

1243 posts - 216 votes 
Speaks: English*, Czech, Spanish
Studies: Slovak, Ukrainian, Hungarian, Toki Pona, Polish

 
 Message 460 of 541
06 August 2014 at 8:04pm | IP Logged 
From my experience and after checking with Czechs, the 'ty jsi se nemyl' is formal and
the 'ty ses nemyl' is informal but also possible in many formal situations and writings,
just not in the highest level of formality. So obviously the fact that 'ty' is being
used generally makes it informal and so 'ty ses nemyl' or similar sentences are far more
common than 'ty jsi se nemyl'. Both are correct.
1 person has voted this message useful



vonPeterhof
Tetraglot
Senior Member
Russian FederationRegistered users can see my Skype Name
Joined 1970 days ago

714 posts - 809 votes 
Speaks: Russian*, EnglishC2, Japanese, German
Studies: Kazakh, Korean, Norwegian, Turkish

 
 Message 461 of 541
07 August 2014 at 6:32am | IP Logged 
Hi, Chung! I can't respond to your message, so could you free up your inbox a little?



Chung
Diglot
Senior Member
Joined 4354 days ago

4232 posts - 4069 votes 
20 sounds
Speaks: English*, French
Studies: Polish, Slovak, Uzbek, Turkish, Korean, Finnish

 
 Message 462 of 541
07 August 2014 at 6:59am | IP Logged 
В порядке. Moжешь сейчас послать личное сообщение.



Chung
Diglot
Senior Member
Joined 4354 days ago

4232 posts - 4069 votes 
20 sounds
Speaks: English*, French
Studies: Polish, Slovak, Uzbek, Turkish, Korean, Finnish

 
 Message 463 of 541
02 September 2014 at 2:09am | IP Logged 
FINNISH

I've continued working on Chapter 1 of “Finnish for Foreigners 2” and did the exercises in the workbook on the present and past active participles, the derivational suffix -inen and using kukaan “nobody”. I worked through the second text of Ymmärrä suomea!, Ville. This was noticeably harder than the first text because of the number of times I had to look up words. At least I didn't have a huge problems with the comprehension questions at the end.



(From Sano ”nano nano” via Musta hevonen -sarjakuva)

1) “If only these walls could talk.”
2) “Maybe they can talk but they haven't come up with anything to say.”
3) “Or maybe they're shy, uh, (they're) wallflowers. Or they’re mimes.”

- miimikko (miimikon, miimikkoa, miimikoita) “mime; mimic”

Convention for unfamiliar vocabulary in the comic strip (i.e. needed to consult a dictionary)

NOUNS & ADJECTIVES: nominative singular (genitive singular, partitive singular, partitive plural)
VERBS: 1st infinitive (1st person singular present tense, 3rd person singular past simple tense, active past participle)
ADVERBS & INTERJECTIONS: no extra information given

***

KOREAN

I worked through Chapter 1 of “Spoken World Korean” which introduced several topics including honorifics, present tense and the topic particle. Doing the exercises was torturous because I'm still new enough in Korean that a lot of things don't come that quickly and I wrote all of my answers in hangul. I only hope that I'll get more used to Korean before too long - I don't want this experience to be a repetition of what I went through with Lithuanian where despite working diligently through "Teach Yourself Lithuanian" and going on a pleasant trip to Lithuania, I got so discouraged by my lack of progress and that little was sticking in mind that I dropped the language before finishing the course.

***

RUSSIAN

Since the start of August, I've blazed through “Take off in Russian” and “New Penguin Russian Course”. In the former I’m halfway done (i.e. 7 chapters done, 7 more to go) while in the latter I've finished the first nine chapters with 21 more to go. At this pace, I expect to be done with these courses by the end of the year. As I've hinted at in the upcoming Turkic challenge, my goal is to get enough of a base in Russian so that I can use learning material that's issued in Russian for lesser-known Turkic languages without too much frustration but with the help of a large Russian-English dictionary.

Even though my background has been very useful in studying Russian and smoothing out items that I've seen others stress over (e.g. cases, verbs of motion, aspect, "strange" vocabulary), the language has increasingly come off to me as being weirder than the other Slavonic languages which I've studied than I had imagined. It's not just the sound of the language with all of its vowel reduction that catches my attention but also the number of false friends and ways in expressing certain concepts. At some point, I'll devote a post with examples to illustrate what I mean.

***

TURKISH

I worked through Unit 26 of “Turkish Self-Study Course”. I did more work with the present continuous and also got introduced to the postposition için “for”, other uses of ile ~ “with” and the adverb yürüyerek “on foot”.

***

UKRAINIAN

I've worked through the Chapter 4 of “Colloquial Ukrainian” and went over the past tense, vocative, a few conjunctions, some phrases used in introductions, and terms for nationalities. Even though I'm speeding through this course and have scaled back my involvement with Ukrainian, I can see how "Colloquial Ukrainian" wouldn't be a suitable course for most beginners. There's already been a lot of new content thrown about with too few exercises to help reinforce that content.



(From Ланч via Огірок - переклади коміксів украïнською)

1) “Eeeewww. It’s full of ants in my lunch! - Eeew, in mine too!”
2) “Sorry, that’s my fault.”

Convention for vocabulary in the comic strip that's unfamiliar to me (i.e. needed to consult a dictionary)

NOUNS & ADJECTIVES: nominative singular (genitive singular)
VERBS (where applicable using convention of imperfective > perfective): infinitive (1st person singular present tense [imperfective verb] / future tense [perfective verb], 3rd person plural present tense [imperfective verb] / future tense [perfective verb])
ADVERBS & INTERJECTIONS: no extra information given

***

MISCELLANEOUS

I'll be travelling later this month so this will be the last update until next month. I'll be in Poland for at least a few days and will get some badly-needed live practice. I'll probably pack a couple of small textbooks and a notepad so that I can work through some exercises when I have downtime.
______


1 person has voted this message useful



Chung
Diglot
Senior Member
Joined 4354 days ago

4232 posts - 4069 votes 
20 sounds
Speaks: English*, French
Studies: Polish, Slovak, Uzbek, Turkish, Korean, Finnish

 
 Message 464 of 541
02 September 2014 at 2:30am | IP Logged 
SLOVAK

As noted here, I’m compiling a list of verbs that use prefixes in derivation or to indicate changes in aspect.



(From S H O O T Y... som Grogy)

1) “So we'll just trim a bit off.”
3) “When I was small I played only with dolls. Never with (toy) cars. I was always combing them. Get it?”
4) “No. - I should lighten (your) hair.”
5) “What is it you don’t get, darling? - (The bit about) the dolls.”
6) “Why aren’t you a ladies’ hairdresser?”

Convention for vocabulary in the comic strip that's unfamiliar to me (i.e. needed to consult a dictionary)

NOUNS & ADJECTIVES: nominative singular (genitive singular)
VERBS (where applicable using convention of imperfective > perfective): infinitive (3rd person singular present tense [imperfective verb] / future tense [perfective verb], 3rd person plural present tense [imperfective verb] / future tense [perfective verb])
ADVERBS & INTERJECTIONS: no extra information given

---

See here for the rationale for and information about this exercise in comparing Czech and Slovak.

The Czech sentences are red while the Slovak ones are blue. (…) denotes text that has been omitted because its subject matter does not tie back to the common translation thus making it ineligible for grammatical or lexical comparison.

Unit 15

Dialog 2 / Dialóg 2

M: Znáš mého staršího bratra? Nemá žádné zaměstnání, ale je docela spokojený a šťastný!

M: Poznáš môjho staršieho brata? Nemá žiadne zamestnanie a je sám so sebou celkom spokojný a šťastný!

“Do you know my older brother? He doesn’t have any job but he’s totally satisfied and happy! / he (himself) is totally satisfied and happy with himself!

Cz: znát | Sk: poznať “to be acquainted with, know”

In Czech, poznat is the perfective counterpart to poznávat “to recognize; experience”. In Slovak, znať is a dated alternative to poznať and [color-blue]vedieť “to know”. When poznať is used in perfective, it then means “to get to know; recognize; find out” and so would more closely resemble the aforementioned note about Czech poznat.

Cz: mého | Sk: môjho “my” (masculine animate singular object, accusative)

Here is the full declension of “my” when the object is masculine animate in Czech and Slovak.

Singular masculine animate object

nominative, accusative, genitive, dative, locative, instrumental

Cz: můj, mého, mého, mému, mém, mým
Sk: môj, môjho, môjho, môjmu, mojom, mojím

Plural masculine animate object

nominative, accusative, genitive, dative, locative, instrumental

Standard Cz: mí, , mých, mým, mých, mými
Colloquial Cz: moji, moje, mých, mým, mém, mýma
Sk: moji, mojich, mojich, mojim, mojich, mojimi

When the masculine animate object is singular, můj is declined the same in standard and colloquial Czech unlike what happens when the masculine animate object is plural. Note also that Slovak merges the forms of the accusative and genitive for masculine animate objects in each of singular (i.e. acc./gen. môjho and plural (i.e. acc./gen. mojich), whereas Czech merges the forms only when the masculine animate object is in singular (i.e. acc./gen. sing. mého BUT acc. plur. mé / moje ≠ gen. plur. mých)

Cz: žádné | Sk: žiadne “[not] any” (neuter singular object, accusative)

Small differences in spelling reflect small differences in pronunciation. Compare žádný with žiadny.

Cz: zaměstnání | Sk: zamestnanie “employment, job, occupation”

Small differences in spelling reflect small differences in pronunciation. Compare zaměstnání with zamestnanie. See here for more discussion about Czech versus Slovak -ie using štěstí and šťastie as examples.

Cz: docela | Sk: celkom “fully, totally”

In Slovak, docela is a dated alternative to celkom. The dictionary of standard Czech shows no result for celkom.

If one wanted to reduce divergence ever so slightly, one could replace celkom with docela although to a Slovak it come off as rather old-fashioned if not a Czechism. However using celkom instead of docela would be ungrammatical to a Czech even if he/she might still be able to understand it given the context and its relationship to the adjective celý “all, whole”

Cz: spokojený | Sk: spokojný “content, satisfied”

Spokojný is an obsolete variant of spokojený while spokojený yields only references in a historical Slovak dictionary and a parallel Czech-Slovak corpus.


H: Podívej se ale moje rodiče. Celý život pracovali v továrně nebo v kanceláři a teď, přestože nejsou vůbec staří, jsou nezaměstnaní, sedí doma a nevědí, co mají dělat. Celý den si jenom čtou noviny, dívají se na televizi, stěžují si na svoji situaci a vzpominají na staré časy.

H: Pozri sa na mojich rodičov. Celý život pracovali vo fabrike alebo v kancelárii a teraz, hoci nie sú vôbec starí, sú nezamestnaní, sedia doma a nevedia, čo majú robiť. Celý deň si len čítajú noviny, pozerajú televíziu, ponosujú sa na svoju situáciu a spomínajú si na staré časy.

“Look at my parents. They worked all of their lives in a factory or office and now, even though they aren’t at all old, are unemployed sitting at home not knowing what to do. They just read the newspapers all day, watch television or complain about their situation and remember the old times.”

Cz: továrna | Sk: fabrika “factory”

In Czech, fabrika is an old-fashioned and non-technical term for a factory. Továreň is the Slovak counterpart of Czech továrna thus illustrating a certain correspondance between the Czech deriviational suffix -na with the Slovak one of -eň. See here for another example using Czech kavárna and Slovak kaviareň.

Cz: kancelář | Sk: kancelária “agency, office”

The difference between the pair is clear despite still being quite similar. In addition both words are feminine even though it may not be obvious for the Czech word without resorting to some research in Slavonic historical linguistics.

Cz: přestože | Sk: hoci “although, even though”

Each word is codified for its own language. As far as I know, there’s one synonym that is common to both languages and that common synonym is . One might have used it here instead of přestože and hoci to reduce divergence, although is formal in Czech and old-fashioned in Slovak which could make such convergence appear contrived.

Cz: stěžovat si | Sk: ponosovať sa “to complain”

Each word is codified for its own language, however an approximate Slovak analogue of the Czech verb is sťažovať sa (not *sťažovať si which would be even closer). Ponosovat se is marked in the dictionary of written Czech as a Slovakism.

Cz: vzpomínat (si) | Sk: spomínať (si) “to recall, remember”

Each word is codified for its own language even though each verb is similar to the other thanks to the common root of pomína-. Note that the Czech form uses a different set of prefixes (i.e. v- + z-) from the Slovak form (i.e. s- - etymologically the same here as Czech z-). In addition, the reflexive pronoun si for the verb is optional in both languages with the author using it in the Czech dialogue but not the Slovak one.


M: Tvoji rodiče nejsou vůbec typický příklad.

M: Tvoji rodičia nie sú vôbec typický príklad.

“Your parents aren’t at all a typical example.”

Cz: příklad | Sk: príklad “example”

Small difference in spelling reflects difference in pronunciation.


H: Nevím, jestli máš docela pravdu. Dnes je u nás hodně nezaměstnaných. Podle mého názoru by všichni měli mít právo na práci.

H: Neviem, či máš celkom pravdu. Dnes je u nás na Slovensku veľa nezamestnaných ľudí. Podľa môjho názoru by všetci mali mať právo na prácu.

“I don’t know if you’re totally right. Nowadays there are lots of unemployed people in Slovakia. In my opinion everyone should have the right to work.”

Cz: podle | Sk: podľa “according to, per”

Small difference in spelling reflects difference in pronunciation.

Cz: všichni | Sk: všetci “all (people), everyone”

Each word is specific to its own language and points to a broader distinction in the use of the term translateable as “all, everyone, everything” despite ultimately being derivations of Proto-Slavonic *vьсь “all, every”. Strictly speaking the word for “everyone” descends from an adjective meaning “all (of the); the whole” but when used in masculine animate plural it translates to “everyone” referring to an entire group of men or a mixed group of men and women. Všechny and všetky on their own could translate to “everyone” referring to an entire group of women or one of children or other young living beings.

“everything” (neuter singular)
nominative, accusative, genitive, dative, locative, instrumental

Cz: všechno, všechno, všeho, všemu, všem, vším
Sk: všetko, všetko, všetkého, všetkému, všetkom, všetkým

“everyone” (masculine animate plural)
nominative, accusative, genitive, dative, locative, instrumental

Cz: všichni, všechny, všech, všem, všech, všemi
Sk: všetci, všetkých, všetkých, všetkým, všetkých, všetkými

Examples:

“Everyone is on holiday today.” (referring to men only or a group of men and women)
Cz: Všichni jsou dnes na dovoleně.
Sk: Všetci sú dnes na dovolenke.

“Everyone is on holiday today.” (referring to a group that doesn’t have men)
Cz: Všechny jsou dnes na dovoleně.
Sk: Všetky sú dnes na dovolenke.

“My friends prepared everything yesterday.”
Cz: Mí kamarádi připravili všechno včera.
Sk: Moji kamaráti pripravili všetko včera.

“Don't believe everything that you hear.”
Cz: Nevěř všemu, co slyšíš.
Sk: Never všetkému, čo počuješ.

“What do you think of all of my opinions?”
Cz: Co si myslíte o mých všech názorech?
Sk: Čo si myslíte o mojich všetkých názoroch?

“We don’t agree with all of your opinions.”
Cz: Nesouhlasíme s vašimi všemi názory.
Sk: Nesúhlasíme s vašimi všetkými názormi.


M: I na oddech! Není to ale trochu staromódní názor?

M: Aj na oddych! Nie je to ale trochu staromodný názor?

“And to leisure! Isn’t that just a slightly old-fashioned opinion?”

Cz: oddech | Sk: oddych “leisure, recreation, relaxation”

Small difference in spelling reflects small difference in pronunciation.

All other differences have been covered in previous entries.


1 person has voted this message useful



This discussion contains 541 messages over 68 pages: << Prev 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68  Next >>


Post ReplyPost New Topic Printable version Printable version

You cannot post new topics in this forum - You cannot reply to topics in this forum - You cannot delete your posts in this forum
You cannot edit your posts in this forum - You cannot create polls in this forum - You cannot vote in polls in this forum


This page was generated in 0.6680 seconds.


DHTML Menu By Milonic JavaScript
Copyright 2017 FX Micheloud - All rights reserved
No part of this website may be copied by any means without my written authorization.