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Chung
Diglot
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 Message 41 of 541
08 July 2011 at 7:12am | IP Logged 
Kijttoseh!



Kafea
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Studies: Smi

 
 Message 42 of 541
08 July 2011 at 9:56am | IP Logged 
Inari film clip and other stuff to click on.



Chung
Diglot
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Studies: Polish, Slovak, Uzbek, Turkish, Korean, Finnish

 
 Message 43 of 541
11 July 2011 at 1:01am | IP Logged 
I have completed Chapter 2 and was introduced to locative singular as used in possession and the particle/suffix -uv

1) Inari Saami expresses possession by putting the possessor in locative and combining it in a sentence with "[there] is" and the possessed object in nominative. This method of expressing possession is somewhat similar to what is used in Estonian, Finnish, Hungarian, Russian, Turkish and Ukrainian.

"The boy has a book." (understood literally in Inari Saami as "Boy-on [there] is book" ~ "There's a/the book on a/the boy.")
Kaandâst lii kirje. (kaandâst is locative singular) (Inari Saami)

The locative singular of a word is constructed by attaching the suffix -st to a stem based on the form in the genitive singular.

e.g.

mun = "I"; muu = "my, mine"; must = "at/in/on me"
käärbis = "boat" (nom. sing.); kárbá = "boat's, of a/the boat"; kárbást = "at/in/on a/the boat"

The agglutinative process here in Inari Saami is reminiscent of declension of Estonian and Finnish where adjectives and nouns in cases other than the "core" ones are often marked as such by attaching the ending to the stem that derives from the genitive singular.

e.g.
ESTONIAN
mina = "I"; minu = "my, mine"; minul = "at/on me"
paat = "boat" (nom. sing.); paadi = "boat's, of a/the boat"; paadil = "at/on a/the boat" (adessive sing.)

FINNISH
minä = "I"; minun = "my, mine"; minulla = "at/on me"
vene = "boat" (nom. sing.); veneen = "boat's, of a/the boat"; veneellä = "at/on a/the boat" (adessive sing.)

2) The chapter also introduces the particle/suffix -uv which can mark interrogation, emphasis or duplication.

Lii-uv tust kirje? "Do you have a/the book?" (literally: "Is-[interrogative particle] at-you a/the book?")
Lah-uv tun Ánná? "Are you Anna?"

Using the particle in this way is reminiscent of the Finnish interrogative suffix -ko/-kö.

Onko sinulla kirja? "Do you have a/the book?"
Oletko sinä Anna? "Are you Anna?

The particle -uv can also correspond to the Finnish suffix -kin which similarly signals duplication or emphasis.

Must-uv lii käärbis! "I indeed/too have a boat!" (Inari Saami)
Minullakin on vene! "I indeed/too have a boat!" (Finnish)

Vocabulary of chapter 2

For nouns, the first entry is in nom. sing., the second one in acc./gen. sing.

For verbs, the first entry is in the infinitive, the second one in present tense for 1st person singular

avdo, avdo - "car"
kale lii - "yes, indeed, there definitely is..."
kirje, kirje - "book"
ko - "when" (conjunction)
käärbis, kárbá - "boat"
luuhâđ, luuvâm - "to read"
luuvâ! - "read!" (i.e. imperative, 2nd person singular)
must - "at/in/on me" (i.e. locative form of "mun")
nubbe, nube - "second"
sust - "at/in/on him/her" (i.e. locative form of "sun")
tupe, tuve - "cottage"
tust - "at/in/on you" (i.e. locative form of "tun")
vâi - "or"

Numerals 1-14 (i.e. number of the pages that cover chapters 1 and 2)

1 - oktâ
2 - kyehti
3 - kulmâ
4 - nelji
5 - vittâ
6 - kuttâ
7 - čiččâm
8 - käävci
9 - oovce
10 - love

11 - ohtânubáloh
12 - kyehtinubáloh
13 - kulmânubáloh
14 - neljinubáloh

Examples of Inari Saami taken from my answers to the exercises.

Translate into Inari Saami (sentences translated from original Finnish into English)

a) I have a boat > Must lii käärbis.
b) Do you have a book? > Lii-uv tust kirje?
c) What does the girl have? > Mii lii nieidâst?
d) Matti has a car. > Maatist lii avdo.
e) Does Elli have a boat? > Lii-uv Eelist käärbis?
f) What do I have? > Mii lii must?
g) Does he/she have a car? > Lii-uv sust avdo?

Edited by Chung on 05 August 2011 at 5:07pm

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Chung
Diglot
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 Message 44 of 541
12 July 2011 at 6:40pm | IP Logged 
Kafea wrote:
Yes, my Davvin 1 has assumed that I know things too. Mine is in North Sámi. For instance, one of the first greetings is, "Gii bo boata?" I am left to figure out that this means gii=how, boata=come. How do you come? How are you? Another one is "Gii do boahtá de?" (de, dat) important words which were not explained in the first few lessons.


Upon reading Chapters 1 and 2 in my copy of Davvin 1 for Finnish-speakers, I've figured out that Gii do boahtá? (I suspect that bo is a typo) means "Who over there is coming?" with gii meaning "who" and do meaning "over there".

Gii do boahtá de? means "Who over there is coming now?" with de meaning "now".

boahtá and de are in Chapter 1's glossary, gii and do are in Chapter 2's.

As far as I can tell there's no literal equivalent to the ritualistic greeting "How are you?" (i.e. *Mot leat?) but in Chapter 2 we are introduced to a counterpart in Northern Saami when we hear in the dialogues Mot manná? meaning "How goes [it]?" (cf. Finnish Miten menee?). The glossary for Chapter 2 also lists Mii gulllo which is used in a similar way even though it doesn't occur in the chapter's dialogues (it actually means something like "What is heard?" (cf. Finnish Mitä kuuluu?)).
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Chung
Diglot
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 Message 45 of 541
15 July 2011 at 5:34am | IP Logged 
I have completed Chapter 3 and was introduced to interrogatives, conjugation of verbs in present tense, case governance of numerals and quantifiers

1) Kii and mii are the interrogatives corresponding to "who" and "what" respectively

The declensional patterns introduced for these interrogatives in the chapter are as follows:

NOMINATIVE: kii (sing.)
ACCUSATIVE: kiäm (sing.)
GENITIVE: kiän (sing.)
LOCATIVE: kiäst (sing.)

NOMINATIVE: mii (sing.); moh (plur.)
ACCUSATIVE: maid (sing. & plur.)
GENITIVE: mon (sing.)
LOCATIVE: mast (sing.)

(For completeness' sake, here's a handout courtesy Ivalo Upper Secondary School showing the full declension for kii and mii)

2) Verbs are divided into conjugational groups based on their syllabic structure

Group 1: Verbs of 2 or 4 syllables and consonantal changes occuring as they are conjugated (for verbs of 4 syllables, the consonantal changes occur on the consonant separating the 3rd and 4th syllables).

Group 2: Verbs of 1, 3 or 5 syllables.

Group 3: Verbs with -aj-, -áj-, -ej- or -oj- bridging the 2nd and 3rd syllables in the present tense form for 3rd person plural.

e.g. čokkájeh "they are sitting"

3. A nominal following a modifying numeral takes a different case depending on the numeral.

1 puts the modified nominal in nominative singular.
2 to 6 put the modified nominal in genitive singular.
7 or greater put the modified nominal in partitive singular

The quantifying pronoun kalle? "how many?" puts the modified nominal in genitive singular.

In comparison with other Finno-Ugric languages:

1 puts the modified nominal in singular in Estonian and Finnish
Greater than 1 puts the modified nominal in partitive singular in Estonian and Finnish

A nominal is in singular regardless of its modifying numeral in Hungarian

4. The pronouns kalle and moh require the associated verb to be in 3rd person plural

5. A direct object is always in accusative. Thank God! It doesn't seem that I'll need to worry about telicity in the direct object as in Estonian and Finnish or choosing between indefinite and definite conjugational patterns depending on the definiteness of the direct object as in Hungarian.

Vocabulary of Chapter 3

For nouns, the first entry is in nom. sing., the second one in acc./gen. sing.

For verbs, the first entry is in the infinitive, the second one in present tense for 1st person singular

Avveel, Avveel - Ivalo, of Ivalo [name of the largest settlement of the municipality of Inari]
kalle - how many
kiän - whose
kiäs - into whom (illative sing.) [this case hasn't been introduced yet!]
kuálmâd - third
mááláđ, mááláám - to paint
maid - what (accusative sing./plur.)
moh - what (nominative plur.)
porgâđ, poorgâm - to do (intransitive)
sárguđ, sáárgum - to draw
täst - here (locative)
tääl - now

Numerals 15-23 (i.e. number of the pages that cover chapter 3)

15 - vittânubáloh
16 - kuttânubáloh
17 - čiččâmnubáloh
18 - käävcinubáloh
19 - oovcenubáloh
20 - kyehtlov
21 - kyehtlovohtâ
22 - kyehtlovkyehti
23 - kyehtlovkulmâ

Examples of Inari Saami taken from my answers to the exercises.

Fill in the blanks with the correct form of the word for "boat"

1. Kiäst lii käärbis?
2. Kiän käärbis taa lii?
3. Taa lii Ááná käärbis.
4. Áánást lii käärbis.
5. Kárbá nommâ lii "Jorŋâ".
6. Lii-uv tust käärbis? Lii, must láá kyehti kárbá.
7. Matti sárgu kárbá.
8. Kalle kárbá Maatist láá?
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Chung
Diglot
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 Message 46 of 541
18 July 2011 at 2:09am | IP Logged 
I have completed Chapter 4 and was introduced to "where?" and a little more about conjugation for verbs in Group 1.

1) Kost and kuus cover "whence"/"where" and "where [to]" respectively.

Kost is in locative case and corresponds to "where" and "where from"/"whence" while kuus is in illative case and corresponds to "where to".

In comparison to the three national Finno-Ugric languages, Inari Saami uses kost to do "double duty".

kost
kus & kust (Estonian)
missä & mistä (Finnish)
hol & honnan (Hungarian)
where & whence (English)

kuus
kuhu (Estonian)
mihin (Finnish)
hová (Hungarian)
where [to] (English)

2) When conjugating verbs of Group 1 in present tense, they inflect in weak grade for 1st and 2nd person singilar but strong grade for 3rd person singular.

e.g. moonnâđ "to go"

mun moonâm = "I go" (nn > n)
tun moonah = "you go" (nn > n)
sun mana "he/she goes" (nn > n but this is a "strong grade" (?))

Unfortunately consonant gradation in Inari Saami seems quite complicated and the book doesn't go into much detail about it or about how to conjugate verbs. The explanations given so far haven't been too helpful and just looking at moonnâđ I can see that conjugating isn't a simple matter of adding suffixes to the end of a stem. A "weakened" infinitive stem takes -âm for 1st person sing. and -ah for 2nd person sing. but the 3rd person sing. is in a way that's not as visibly linked to the infinitive or the preceding two forms.

Vocabulary of Chapter 4

For nouns, the first entry is in nom. sing., the second one in acc./gen. sing.

For verbs, the first entry is in the infinitive, the second one in present tense for 1st person singular

kost - where? where from/whence?
kuus - where to?
moonnâđ, moonâm - to go
mutâ - but
nabai - and what about...
niäljád - fourth
olgon - [at] outside (location/position)
olgos - [to] outside (as a goal of motion)
siisâ - [to] inside (as a goal of motion)
siste - [at] inside (location/position)
västid - [he/she] answers
västidiđ, västiđâm - to answer

Numerals 24-28 (i.e. number of the pages that cover chapter 4)

24 - kyehtlovnelji
25 - kyehtlovvittâ
26 - kyehtlovkuttâ
27 - kyehtlovčiččâm
28 - kyehtlovkäävci

Examples of Inari Saami taken from selected answers to the exercises.

Fill in the blanks with the correct form of the verb "to go"

1. Mun moonâm olgos. Sun mana siisâ.
2. Tun moonah siisâ. Mana-uv sun olgos?
3. Moonâm-uv mun siisâ vâi olgos? Matti mana siisâ.
4. Ánná mana olgos. Moonah-uv tun siisâ?
5. Kuus sun mana? Kii mana siisâ?
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Chung
Diglot
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 Message 47 of 541
21 July 2011 at 2:33am | IP Logged 
I have completed Chapter 5 and was introduced to negative conjugation for leđe "to be" in present tense singular and predicative adjectives. I also did some additional reading of the online textbook of Inari Saami for Finnish-speakers to try to fill some gaps in my understanding of Inari Saami's grammar that I've learned so far.

1) Inari Saami negates actions by using a negative auxiliary verb (i.e. conjugated negation marker) and leaving the main verb as an unconjugated stem.

e.g.

jiem lah - (I) am not (Cf. Finnish en ole)
jieh lah - (you) are not (Cf. Finnish et ole)
ij lah - (he/she) is not (Cf. Finnish ei ole)

At their most fundamental, the forms are:

jiem - (I) not...
jieh - (you) not...
ij - (he/she) not...

2) Predicative adjectives in Inari Saami differ from attributive adjectives.

In other words, an adjective that follows a link or copula (usually some form of "to be") will look different from when that same adjective precedes the nominal. The two predicative adjectives introduced were styeres "big" and ucce "small". Even though I haven't yet been introduced to attributive adjectives, the way that the predicative adjectives are explained lead me to the conclusion that their forms differ.

e.g.

Kandâ lii ucce. "The boy is small."
Kaandah láá uceh. "The boys are small."

Vocabulary of Chapter 5

For nouns, the first entry is in nom. sing., the second one in acc./gen. sing.

For verbs, the first entry is in the infinitive, the second one in present tense for 1st person singular

kappeer, kappeer - cap, cap's/of [a/the] cap
mainâstiđ, mainâstâm - to say, tell
meendu - very
škovlâ, škoovlâ - school, school's/of [a/the] school
styeres - big (predicative)
stuárráb - bigger (predicative)
ucce - small (sing. - predicative)
uceh - small (plur. - predicative)
uceeb - smaller (predicative)
viiđâd - fifth

Numerals 29-34 (i.e. number of the pages that cover chapter 5)

29 - kyehtlovoovce

30 - kulmâlov
31 - kulmâlovohtâ
32 - kulmâlovkyehti
33 - kulmâlovkulmâ
34 - kulmâlovnelji

Examples of Inari Saami taken from selected answers to the exercises.

Translate into Inari Saami (sentences translated from original Finnish into English)

1. He/she is big. > Sun lii styeres.
2. He/she is not small. Sun ij lah ucce.
3. I am not outside. > Mun jiem lah olgon.
4. He/she is drawing a school. > Sun sárgu škoovlâ.
5. That/This/It is big. > Tot lii styeres.
6. The boy does not have a cap. > Kaandâst ij lah kappeer.
7. The girl has three caps. > Nieidâst láá kulmâ kappeer.
8. You are not small. > Tun jieh lah ucce.
9. That/This/It is not my book. > Tot ij lah muu kirje.

****

ADDENDUM:

I've read some of the notes on grammar in that Finnish course of Inari Saami on .pdf and have made out as much as possible of its explanations in Finnish as they are relevant to the grammar presented so far in the kids' textbook that I'm using. Here is what I grasped with the help of my Finnish-English dictionary:

Chung’s understanding/interpretation of the relevant parts of the Inari Saami course for Finnish-speakers wrote:
Inari Saami uses vocalic and consonantal mutation in inflection but not all of these changes are obvious and it seems that the learner is left to do a lot of memorization despite there being some rules (see below).

- a) Vocalic changes as part of inflection occur in the word's first syllable. Examples of vocalic changes include:

e ~ ee: peivi ~ peeivi "day ~ day's/of [a/the] day" (change in length)
ye ~ uá ~ uó: kyeli ~ klán ~ kuolijd "fish ~ as [a/the] fish (?) [essive singular?] ~ fishes [accusative plural]"


- b) Inari Saami's method of consonant mutation can be described as consonant gradation but it's even more elaborate than what I've seen so far in the kindred Estonian and Finnish since it affects consonants or consonantal clusters other than those with k, p and t.


- c) As with verbs, nouns can be divided into groups depending on how many syllables comprise the basic (nominative) form.

1. Nouns of 2 syllables tend to end with 1 vowel when declined in nominative singular and accusative/genitive singular.

2. Nouns of 3 or 4 syllables to end in a consonant when declined in accusative/genitive singular.

3. The accusative/genitive singular form of a contracted noun (See Note 1) ends in a geminated vowel (contracted nouns seem to be marked in spelling with ' before the consonant). Contracted nouns that end with -s tend to end in a single vowel in accusative/genitive singular.


- d) I've noted in 2) in message no. 45 that Inari Saami's verbs are divided into groups based on the number of syllables. The online course notes the following:

1. Verbs of 2 syllables in the infinitive undergo consonant gradation and vowel changes (~Ablaut). These verbs end with -âđ, -eđ, -iđ, -ođ, and -uđ.

2. Verbs of 3 syllables in the infinitive do not undergo consonant gradation but the vowel of the 1st syllable often lengthens when conjugated. This group of verbs ends with -iđ.

3. Verbs of 4 syllables in the infinitive undergo consonant gradation in the 3rd syllable when conjugated.

4. Contracted verbs (See Note 2) look like verbs of 2 syllables but these do not undergo consonant gradation. A reliable sign of a contracted verb is the long vowel of the second syllable when conjugated in 1st person singular present tense. These kinds of verb end in -áđ, -ađ, -iđ, and -uđ.. Moreover all verbs that end in -áđ or -ađ are contracted verbs.


Note 1: Finnish has contracted nouns too; these are the nouns whose vowels change length as you inflect the basic form. I guess that the "contraction" arises from the loss of a vowel that occurs when going from the main inflectional stem to the basic form (e.g. huoneen "the room's" [genitive singular] ~ huone "room" [nominative singular]).

Note 2: Finnish has contracted verbs too; these are the verbs whose infinitives end in -ta/-tä but when conjugated lose the -t- and so the last syllable of the verb becomes long. I guess that the contraction arises from the loss of the -t- when conjugating (e.g. hypätä "to jump" ~ hyppään "I jump").

Edited by Chung on 05 August 2011 at 5:08pm

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Chung
Diglot
Senior Member
Joined 4416 days ago

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Speaks: English*, French
Studies: Polish, Slovak, Uzbek, Turkish, Korean, Finnish

 
 Message 48 of 541
23 July 2011 at 5:11pm | IP Logged 
I have completed Chapter 6 and was formally shown the locative in its typical use in indicating position or movement away from somewhere. I was also introduced to attributive adjectives and the patterns for four verbs in present tense singular.

1) As mentioned in message no. 43, the locative is marked by the suffix -st and is attached to a stem that is based on the form in the genitive singular. In addition, the locative in Inari Saami does "extra duty" when compared to otherwise similar concepts in the national Finno-Ugric languages.

When -st is attached to a noun, it can be understood as marking position inside something, on the surface of something, movement away from the interior of something, or movement away from the surface of something. Therefore the locative case in Inari Saami encompasses 4 cases in Estonian and Finnish, 6 in Hungarian.

Inari Saami
-st (locative)

Estonian
-lt (ablative - usu. denotes movement from the object but never from its interior)
-l (adessive ~ usu. denotes position relative to an object but never its interior)
-st (elative ~ usu. denotes movement from the interior)
-s (inessive ~ usu. denotes position inside something)

Finnish
-lta/-ltä (ablative - usu. denotes movement from an object but never its interior)
-lla/-llä (adessive ~ usu. denotes position relative to an object but never its interior)
-sta/-stä (elative ~ usu. denotes movement from the interior)) (Finnish)
-ssa/-ssä (inessive ~ usu. denotes position inside something)

Hungarian
-tól/-től (ablative ~ usu. denotes movement from the vicinty of something)
-nál/-nél (adessive ~ usu. denotes position in the vicinity of an object)
-ról/-ről (delative ~ usu. denotes movement from the surface)
-ból/-ből (elative ~ usu. denotes movement from the interior)
-ban/-ben (inessive ~ usu. denotes position inside something)
-n/-an/-en/-on/-ön (superessive ~ usu. denotes position on the surface)

2) Attributive adjectives often end in -s or a vowel but do not usually decline with the modified noun as they do in Finnish. These are the adjectives that stand immediately before the modified noun.

3) Conjugation patterns in present tense singular for čokkáđ “to sit”, čäälliđ “to write”, luuhađ “to read” and vastidiđ “to answer”

- čokkáđ (Group 3, no consonant gradation - see message no. 45 for verb conjugation groups. N.B. The classification of verbs in Kari Meløy's textbook differs from what is used in the online textbook which I referred to in message no. 47!)

mun čokkáám, tun čokkááh, sun čokkáá

- čäälliđ (Group 1, consonant gradation - see message no. 45 for verb conjugation groups. N.B. The classification of verbs in Kari Meløy's textbook differs from what is used in the online textbook which I referred to in message no. 47!)

mun čálám; tun čáláh, sun čáálá

- luuhađ (Group 1, consonant gradation - see message no. 45 for verb conjugation groups. N.B. The classification of verbs in Kari Meløy's textbook differs from what is used in the online textbook which I referred to in message no. 47!)

mun luuvâm; tun luuvah, sun lohá

- vastidiđ (Group 2, no consonant gradation - see message no. 45 for verb conjugation groups. N.B. The classification of verbs in Kari Meløy's textbook differs from what is used in the online textbook which I referred to in message no. 47!)

mun västidâm, tun västidâh, sun västid

Vocabulary of Chapter 6

For nouns, the first entry is in nom. sing., the second one in acc./gen. sing.

For adjectives, the first entry is the predicative form, the second on is attributive

For verbs, the first entry is in the infinitive, the second one in present tense for 1st person singular

čokkáđ, čokkáám - to sit
čäälliđ, čálám - to write
fiskâd, fiskis - yellow
kove, kove - picture
kuudâd, kuudâd - sixth
lavkkâ, laavhâ - bag
maggaar - what kind of
pevdi, peevdi - table
ruopsâd, ruopsis - red
taa - here...
vist - again, next

Numerals 35-41 (i.e. number of the pages that cover chapter 6)

35 - kulmâlovvittâ
36 - kulmâlovkuttâ
37 - kulmâlovčiččâm
38 - kulmâlovkäävci
39 - kulmâlovoovce

40 - neljilov
41 - nejilovohtâ

Examples of Inari Saami taken from selected answers to the exercises.

Create questions and answers based on the illustrations (Ed. Illustrations not included in this post.)

1. Kii avdost lii? Kandâ lii avdost.
2. Kost lii nieidâ? Sun lii siste.
3. Mii kárbást lii? Lavkkâ lii kárbást.
4. Mii peevdi alne lii? Kirje lii peevdi alne.
5. Maid kandâ parga? Sun čokkáá škoovlâst.
6. Maggaar lavkkâ kandâst lii? Sust lii stuorrâ lavkkâ.


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