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Declined nouns

  Tags: Multilingual | Grammar
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Cavesa
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 Message 9 of 33
25 June 2013 at 11:15pm | IP Logged 
Czech
Slovak
most slavic languages
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tarvos
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 Message 10 of 33
25 June 2013 at 11:23pm | IP Logged 
Josquin wrote:
Don't forget Modern Greek, Albanian, Latvian, Estonian, and Romanian.
Last but not least: the Celtic languages (Irish, Scottish Gaelic, Welsh, Breton).

EDIT: I think Arabic has declension, too. Right?


Breton does not uses cases.

EDIT: See Mark got there first, he is correct about Breton indeed (don't know about
Welsh).

In Dutch cases are obsolete, although genitives are found in archaisms, and other cases
are found in set phrases or oblique pronouns. One hundred years ago they were alive and
well in the written language though

Edited by tarvos on 25 June 2013 at 11:34pm

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Chung
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 Message 11 of 33
25 June 2013 at 11:57pm | IP Logged 
All Uralic languages as far as I know make such distinctions to varying degrees.

By number of cases (sometimes hard to define) and the associated marking, Komi-Permyak and Obdorsk Khanty represent extremes in quantity with the former having 24 of them (I keep thinking that another Komi dialect has 27, but I can't find the source for that anymore) while the latter has 3.

This map on WALS for number of cases in 261 languages should be of interest.

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Cavesa
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 Message 12 of 33
26 June 2013 at 12:52am | IP Logged 
It would be an awesome map but I find it quite contraproductive that there is a note for many languages with no declinations but some languages with the declinations aren't there just because the countries are small. :-)
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Serpent
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 Message 13 of 33
26 June 2013 at 9:35am | IP Logged 
Even Ukraine doesn't have a note :/
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Josquin
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 Message 14 of 33
26 June 2013 at 10:18am | IP Logged 
Марк wrote:
Welsh and Breton don't have cases, I think.

You're right, the Brythonic languages don't have cases. Sorry about that, I thought they had.
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tarvos
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 Message 15 of 33
26 June 2013 at 10:50am | IP Logged 
I don't know about Welsh, but Breton has quite simple grammar. It shares the mutations
with its other Celtic brethren, but plural formation is quite simple for example, and
word order is very flexible due to it being topicalised (and almost always verb-
second).

RE: Arabic, I believe MSA has three cases; nominative, accusative, genitive, but I am
not sure about the dialects, which could vary wildly. Wikipedia states that for
Classical Arabic, the construct state is relevant and that it puts the modifying noun
in the genitive case.

In Hebrew at least, there are no cases. However nouns that modify other nouns in noun-
noun phrases modify the pronunciation (and sometimes spelling) of the noun. Hei usually
becomes Tav at the end of a noun in status constructus. You could call this a "case",
as it usually implies a construction close to an adjectival or genitival phrase; "beit
sefer" (house of book), meaning a school. It also occurs in other situations
"Mishpachat Zahavi" (the Zahavi family). The word for family is mishpachah.

However the use of status constructus in Semitic languages is not productive
everywhere. In Hebrew, its use to form genitival phrases (which are actually mirrored
quite well by Breton, which prefers noun-noun phrases to noun-adjective ones), is
usually supplanted by using a prepositional phrase "shel" nowadays.

In Breton genitival phrasings are usually done by nouns.

"E ti da dud" (in your parents' house, literally in house your parents).

Edited by tarvos on 26 June 2013 at 12:28pm

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 Message 16 of 33
26 June 2013 at 12:15pm | IP Logged 
So among the current Romance languages only Romanian has cases (though Ancient French had them too). The Brythonic languages don't have them, Dutch may be on the way to loosing its genitive, but all other Indoeuropean and Uralic languages have at least 2 cases (1 case isn't enough to form a case system), and the genitive is normally the last separate case to get lost. Even Esperanto has cases because of its accusative, but no genitive.


Edited by Iversen on 26 June 2013 at 12:16pm



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