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Wie man den Fehlerteufel jagt

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Sunja
Diglot
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Germany
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Speaks: English*, German
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 Message 1 of 5
28 August 2013 at 10:41am | IP Logged 
Hier ein Abschnitt aus meinem "log": Vielleicht findet jemand einen Tipp für sich, oder will etwas beitragen. Please add your tips. Mutterspracher, hoffentlich habe ich selbst alle Fehler beiseitigt! Wenn ihr etwas Falsches seht, bitte meldet!

HOW TO AVOID MISTAKES WRITING German, or
WIE MAN DEN FEHLERTEUFEL JAGT




(Other than concentrating harder or getting enough sleep which we all know anyway!)

TIP 1: When my daughter writes dictation in the school the teacher has her write out her misspelled words 3 times. For example: "nich" instead of "nicht". She writes "nich, nich, nich" on a separate piece of paper. Do this for all misspellings. It might be worth a try!

TIP 2: When proofreading, cover up everything except one sentence. Read the sentence out loud or backwards. Try to ignore the content while you're checking spelling and grammar.

TIP 3: When reading out loud, learn to pay attention to how the word is spoken; this can help with spelling. There are a lot of rules. It's a good idea to have a list of "Merkwörter" for each rule:

short-sounding vowel before double consonants: pfiffig, schwirren, lallen, kommen, lassen. When in doubt whether it's doubled, separate the word root and say it out loud: Kap-pe, Rit-ter, Map-pe,

"s" after long-sounding vowel or dipthongs (ie, eu, au, äu): Gas, Besen, Dose, Pause, Glas

"ss" (Schluss-ss, Scharfes ss) after short-sounding vowel: Fluss , Kuss, Tasse, Reisepass, Missverständnis

"ß" after long-sounding vowels and dipthongs and makes a sharper s-sound: Maß, Gruß, schießen, schließen, heißen, zerreißen, genießen, draußen, Strauß, süß, bloß, stoßen, weiß, heiß

No "tz" afer a dipthong: Geiz, Kreuz

No "ck" after a consonant: stark, Schrank

Vowels that are lengthened (lengthened=gedehnt, the vowel is drawn out when spoken): Rat, Qual, Salat, Samen, Schale, Wal, las, Name, Dame, jagen

Vowels that are lengthened "ah": Zahn, Rahm, Fahren, Wahl, Jahr, Bahn, Sahne, lahm, (and "ih") ihn, ihm, ihr, ihnen

Vowels that are lengthened "aa": Paar, Saat, Aal, Waage, Haar, Saal

Vowels that are lengthened "ee": Seele, Schnee, Meer, Beet, Fee, Idee, Kaffee, Tee, leer, Allee

Vowels that are lengthened "ie": Fieber, Ziel, ließ, Bier, Spiegel, Stiefel, Dieb, Dienst, rief, tief, Beispiel, Niere

Vowels that are lengthened "eh": Mehl, dehnen, mehr, sehr, befehlen, Ehre, fehlen, stehlen, angenehm, wehren

Vowels that are lengthened with "oh": Wohnung, Lohn, Rohr, ohne, Bohne, Ohr, Sohn, Mohn, Hohn, Sohle, Fohlen

Vowels that are lengthened with "oo": Boot, Moos, Moor, doof

Vowels that are lengthened with "h": Uhr, Stuhl, Huhn, Ruhm, Ruhr, Aufruhr

Vowels that are lengthened anyway "i", (without any "identifier"): Bibel, mir, dir, Igel, gib, Apfelsine, Nil, Linie, Tiger, Maschine,

Vowels that are lengthened anyway "u", (without any "identifier"): Blut, Hut, Mut, gut, nun, rufen, trug, Flur, Glut, schuf

Words with Umlauts that are lengthened = gedehnt:

ä: Säge, schräg, Bär, Käfer, Käfig, nämlich, Märchen, spät, Träne
äh: Fährte, Mähne, gähnen, gefährlich, ungefähr, wählen, Strähne
ö: Kröte, blöken, Flöte, Löwe, Möbel, öde, blöde, Getöse, Stör, strömen
öh: Möhre, versöhnen, gewöhnen, stöhnen, Höhle
ü: Blüte, Hügel, Gemüse, Wüste, Bügel, müde, lügen, prüfen, spülen, schwül, Geschwür
üh: Bühne, rühmen, fühlen, führen, rühren, wühlen, kühn, kühl, Frühling, Gefühl, Mühle

end or ent? --
"end" at the beginning means "final"; endlich, endlos, endgültig

"ends": nirgends, eilends, zusehends, vollends, aber: eigens, unversehens

"ent" is a prefix entlaufen, entbehren

z or tz? --

tz after simple, short vowels: Matratze, Katze, Platz, -exception-: Kapuze, Strapaze, Brezel, duzen, Spaziergang

tz after short-sounding umlauts: Mütze, Stütze, -exception-: Kürzel, Würze

NO tz after consonants or dipthongs! - a common mistake is "Artzt"

z after consonants and dipthongs: Salz, Arzt, Herz, Weizen, Schauze

tod or tot?

tot + verb: togschlagen, tottreten, totsagen, tot stellen

tot + en: totenstill, totenblass, Totenstille, Totenkopf, Totenbaum, Totenschein

Tod + adjective: todblass, todstill, todfeind, todkrank, todmüde, todschick, todsicher, tödlich


So many spelling rules! I can't list all, but I came across a nice saying from the school for remembering when to capitalize: mit -ung, -keit, -heit macht sich ein Nomen breit“ You could translate that: "with -ung, -keit, -heit there's a noun in sight"??? Something to that effect!

TIP 4: to remember commas, color-code Hauptsatz (main clause) and Nebensatz (subordinate clause) in order to see where the commas belong.

TIP 5: Fehlerstrategie (mistake-strategy) - keep track of the kinds of mistakes that occur the most frequently and develop a strategy to avoid them. For example, in my case, I sometimes have a problem making sure the verb is conjugated correctly, esp. if the sentence is particularly long. Strategy: Have I checked all the verbs to see if I've applied the right rule? Here's an example "strategy" that I copied for a student who has trouble with French:


    -Ist es ein Verb auf er?
    -Ist es Grundform oder Vergangenheit? Wenn es Vergangenheit ist, dann ist es é, wenn es Grundform ist, ist es er...
    -Und am Ende einer Prüfung kannst du dich fragen: Habe ich bei allen Verben geschaut, ob ich die Regel richtig angewendet habe?


TIP 6: To avoid mistakes, it's important to internalize the grammar/spelling. Don't learn the rules all at once. Tackle one or two grammar/spelling rules at a time and work on them systematically.

Edited by Sunja on 28 August 2013 at 11:18am

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Cabaire
Senior Member
Germany
Joined 3785 days ago

725 posts - 1351 votes 

 
 Message 2 of 5
28 August 2013 at 12:22pm | IP Logged 
Quote:
"ss" (Schluss-ss, Scharfes ss) after short-sounding vowel: Fluss , Kuss, Tasse, Reisepass, Missverständnis

Another German name for the letter ß is "scharfes S". "ss" is spoken like a "scharfes S", but called "Doppel-S".
If I speak non-scientifically about the two s sounds, I call them "Bienen-S" and "Schlangen-S" respectively, because a bee hums, but a snake hisses :-)

Edited by Cabaire on 28 August 2013 at 12:23pm

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fnord
Triglot
Groupie
Switzerland
Joined 3219 days ago

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Speaks: German*, Swiss-German, English
Studies: Luxembourgish, Dutch

 
 Message 3 of 5
08 June 2014 at 12:55am | IP Logged 
Sunja wrote:
"ss" (Schluss-ss, Scharfes ss) after short-sounding vowel: Fluss , Kuss, Tasse, Reisepass,
Missverständnis

Strictly applying your rule, wouldn't it be Missverständniss instead of Missverständnis though?
The second i is also short, sounding the same as in Biss, Miss, Riss and, yes, Ergebnis.

It is quite a common mistake though, even among native speakers (in writing). For instance, see this recent
newspaper headline.


Edited by fnord on 08 June 2014 at 1:13am

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Bao
Diglot
Senior Member
Germany
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Speaks: German*, English
Studies: French, Spanish, Japanese, Mandarin

 
 Message 4 of 5
08 June 2014 at 1:50am | IP Logged 
Tip 1 would teach me to more often write the misspelled word. (I mean, supposedly it's meant to teach awareness, but all I would remember a week or two later was that I'd written it that way before)
On the other hand, when I don't know how to spell a word I write out all options I can think of and pick out the one that 'looks right' or 'felt right writing' and usually that is the correct one.


Quote:
tz after simple, short vowels: Matratze, Katze, Platz, -exception-: Kapuze, Strapaze, Brezel, duzen, Spaziergang


-> tz after stressed short vowels
the first four of your 'exceptions' are stressed long vowels, while the a in Spaziergang is unstressed
(depending on who I am talking to I pronounce Kapuze with a long or short vowel, but when reading aloud it's always long)


For verb forms: I just read noun and verb and maybe single nouns/pronouns when needed as objects. Then the sentence should still make sense and you should be able to figure out whether the verb form is the right one.

Edited by Bao on 08 June 2014 at 1:51am

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daegga
Tetraglot
Senior Member
Austria
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1076 posts - 1789 votes 
Speaks: German*, EnglishC2, Swedish, Norwegian
Studies: Danish, French, Finnish, Icelandic

 
 Message 5 of 5
08 June 2014 at 2:13am | IP Logged 
Cabaire wrote:
Quote:
"ss" (Schluss-ss, Scharfes ss) after short-sounding vowel:
Fluss , Kuss, Tasse, Reisepass, Missverständnis

Another German name for the letter ß is
"scharfes S". "ss" is spoken like a "scharfes S", but called "Doppel-S".
If I speak non-scientifically about the two s sounds, I call them "Bienen-S" and
"Schlangen-S" respectively, because a bee hums, but a snake hisses :-)


There is a problem with the "Bienen-S" though: very often, it doesn't hum. It's always
voiceless in the coda (like every other consonant in German), and very often in the
onset (when it's not preceded by a voiced phoneme from the previous word).

I remember this analogy (ie. the bee for humming) being used by our German teacher (in
primary school I guess - don't remember), but unfortunately, there is no voiced s in
Austrian German, so it was quite confusing back then :)


1 person has voted this message useful



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