FOR REPOSTING TO THE “A LANGUAGE LEARNERS’ FORUM” (LLORG)
During the period from February 2020 through May 2020, I conducted a complete revision to the twenty-eight (28) lists of resources which I had posted on the LLORG during the previous three-year period. As revising these types of documents directly on the LLORG in the “Edit Mode” is fraught with difficulties, I removed their contents from the LLORG, stored them on my computer, and completed the revisions. During the revision process an event occurred which prevented me from reposting the contents to their original files and, as a contingency measure, I have posted them here on the HTLAL in the anticipation that either the Administrator or the Moderators of the LLORG will copy/paste them to the LLORG. - Speakeasy
Indonesia, officially the Republic of Indonesia, is a transcontinental country in Southeast Asia and Oceania, between the Indian and Pacific oceans. It is the world's largest island country, with more than seventeen thousand islands, and at 1,904,569 square kilometres (735,358 square miles), the 14th largest by land area and 7th in the combined sea and land area. With over 267 million people, it is the world's 4th most populous country as well as the most populous Muslim-majority country. Java, the world's most populous island, is home to more than half of the country's population. The country's capital, Jakarta, is the second-most populous urban area in the world. The sovereign state is a presidential, constitutional republic with an elected legislature.
Languages of Indonesia
More than 700 living [color=#0000BF">languages are spoken in Indonesia[/color">. A major part of them belong to the Austronesian language family, while over 270 Papuan (non-Austronesian) languages are spoken in eastern Indonesia. The official language is Indonesian (locally known as bahasa Indonesia), a standardised form of Malay, which serves as the lingua franca of the archipelago. The vocabulary of Indonesian borrows heavily from regional languages of Indonesia, such as Javanese, Sundanese and Minangkabau, as well as from Dutch, Sanskrit and Arabic. The Indonesian language is primarily used in commerce, administration, education and the media. Most Indonesians speak other languages, such as Javanese, as their first language. Most books printed in Indonesia are written in the Indonesian language. Since Indonesia recognises only a single official language, other languages are not recognised either at the national level or the regional level, thus making Javanese the most widely spoken language without official status, with Sundanese the second in the list (excluding Chinese varieties).
Java is an island of Indonesia, bordered by the Indian Ocean on the south and the Java Sea on the north. With a population of over 141 million (Java only) or 145 million (including the inhabitants of its surrounding islands), Java has 56.7 percent of the Indonesian population and is the world's most populous island.] The Indonesian capital city, Jakarta, is located on its northwestern coast … Three main languages are spoken on the island: Javanese, Sundanese, and Madurese, where Javanese is the most spoken; it is the native language of about 60 million Javanese people in Indonesia, most of whom live on Java. Other languages spoken include Betawi (a Malay dialect local to the Jakarta region), Osing, Banyumasan, and Tenggerese (closely related to Javanese), Baduy (closely related to Sundanese), Kangeanese (closely related to Madurese), and Balinese. The vast majority of the population also speaks Indonesian, often as a second language.
[color=#0000FF">Javanese [/color"> (/dʒɑːvəˈniːz/;basa Jawa; Javanese pronunciation: [bɔsɔ d͡ʒɔwɔ]; colloquially known as cara Jawa; Javanese pronunciation: [t͡ʃɔrɔ d͡ʒɔwɔ]) is the language of the Javanese people from the central and eastern parts of the island of Java, in Indonesia. There are also pockets of Javanese speakers on the northern coast of western Java. It is the native language of more than 98 million people (more than 42% of the total population of Indonesia). Javanese is one of the Austronesian languages, but it is not particularly close to other languages and is difficult to classify. Its closest relatives are the neighbouring languages such as Sundanese, Madurese and Balinese. Most speakers of Javanese also speak Indonesian, the standardized form of Malay spoken in Indonesia, for official and commercial purposes as well as a means to communicate with non-Javanese-speaking Indonesians. There are speakers of Javanese in Malaysia (concentrated in the states of Selangor and Johor) and Singapore. Javanese is also spoken by traditional immigrant communities of Javanese descent in Suriname (the Dutch colony of Surinam until 1975) and in New Caledonia.
Dialects of Modern Javanese
There are three main groups of [color=#0000FF">Javanese dialects[/color">, based on sub-regions: Western Javanese, Central Javanese, and Eastern Javanese. The differences are primarily in pronunciation, but with vocabulary differences also. Javanese dialects are all mutually intelligible.
|Although I lived for nearly a year in Central Java and diligently went to Javanese class each Friday, I picked up regrettably little Javanese. The main reason was that I barely heard it on the streets of Yogyakarta! Only on trips out of the city or to Surabaya did I notice a significant amount of Javanese spoken around me. I was focused on learning Indonesian and never met a single person who seemed to prefer speaking Javanese. Perhaps that was a peculiarity of student life in Yogyakarta, though, since another foreigner told me her friends in Solo (an hour and a half away by motorbike) refused to speak Indonesian to accommodate her when speaking amongst themselves…
2. JAVANESE RESOURCES: LEGACY
Javanese Courses, Supplements, etc.
Beginning Javanese (1961), 560 pages, by Elinor C. Horne
Intermediate Javanese (1963), 505 pages, by Elinor C. Horne
Javanese-English Dictionary (1974), 728 pages, by Elinor C. Horne
The two Javanese courses above, published by Yale University Press, employed the-at-the-time very popular audio-lingual method of language instruction (confirmed by an entry on the ERIC website). Although these books have been out-of-print for many years, copies of the textbooks can still found on the internet. Locating a copy of the audio recordings would represent a significant challenge. Who knows, perhaps the publisher has a copy in their archives? I included the reference to this author’s dictionary to illustrate how involved she was in the promotion of this less-frequently-studied language.
|In 2012, Amazon Customer David C. Prince wrote:
|(5 stars) The best book available on the subject in English: I was amazed that a language book written so long ago could be this good. Most texts this old tend to reference grammars for linguists or use the audio-lingual or grammar translation method to teach the learner a language. This book is decades ahead of its time in its approach. I was particularly impressed to find, after talking the with the author Mrs. Horne, that this book was informed by one of the first digitized corpora of foreign language texts in the world. This book was of immense help to me as I worked with Javanese translators on a large Javanese translation and localization project. Typically, I would never recommend a book this old to learn a language. This is the exception to the rule.
Javanese: A Cultural Approach (1984), 559 pages, by Ward Keeler; Ohio University Press
Javanese Language, Vol. 1 and 2 (1901), 1772 pages, by Gerick and Roorda; Johannes Muller
Although this two-volume set might be considered obsolete by many contemporary language students and instructors, I could not resist the temptation of listing it here. Were I to begin studying Javanese, given the sheer beauty of the bound volumes and the depth-of-coverage represented by the combined 1,772 pages of this course, I would purchase a set.
U.S. Peace Corps Javanese – NONE
3. JAVANESE RESOURCES: CONTEMPORARY
Javanese Courses, Supplements, etc.
DLI GLOSS Javanese - NONE
Glossika Javanese – NOT YET RELEASED
Circa 2018: announcement of prospective expansion of languages. Javanese materials not yet available.
Indonesian & Javanese for Professionals (2nd ed., 2013), 392 pages, by Don Hobbs, Galang Lufityanto, et al.; Asian Lizard Languages
NFLC Javanese – University of Maryland - NONE
Parlons javanais: Langues, Dialogues, Lexiques (2016), 412 pages, by Eric Sukanda et al - Éditions L'Harmattan
Available in FRENCH only. CEFR A2-B1. No mention of audio recordings.
SEAsite Indonesia - Javanese
Online introduction to the basics of Javanese.
Javanese Courses, Supplements, etc. (Bahasa Indonesian base)
Online retailer of, amongst other things, Javanese books.
|…I just conducted some quick searches online and essentially confirmed what I had remembered, that there do exist Javanese resources with an Indonesian base but they are rare and tend to be produced by small presses and therefore rarely available online. The Javanese courses at Universitas Negeri Yogyakarta are taught with coursebooks written by the professors. A physical trip to a used bookstore near a university would likely result in a better selection of books in and about Javanese than online shops. And good luck finding a course book with audio, too - what's the use when most people you're publishing for are likely to be native speakers?
Bahasa Jawa Dasar (2014) by Ratnawati and Rachmat – Wedatama Widya Sastra
|… A free and condensed translation of the blurb: "This book is a foundational course in the Javanese language, both written and oral in the ngoko and krama registers complete with systematic exercises for self-study. The material in this book comes from the courses Mastering Javanese I and II in the Regional Literature Studies program at Universitas Indonesia. Although designed for university courses, this book can be used by beginner Javanese learners anywhere."
Javanese Phrasebooks, Language Guides, etc.
DLI Javanese Language Survival Kits
Downloadable PDFs and MP3 files.
iLanguages - Learn Javanese
Javanese-English-English-Javanese Dictionary & Phrasebook Siti Nur'aini (2015), 288 pages, by Siti Nur'aini; Hippocrene Books
Kauderwelsch Javanisch, by Bettina David; Reise Know-How Verlag
Kauderwelsch: Javanisch Wort für Wort (2005), 176 pages
Kauderwelsch AusspracheTrainer: AUDIO Recordings
Available in German only. Phrasebook and AUDIO recordings (extracts only). Sold separately.
Learn Any Language - Javanese Phrasebook
Learn101.org - Javanese Phrases
Mango Languages - Javanese
mylanguages - Learn Javanese
Omniglot - Javanese
Two Rivers Distribution - Javanese Dictionary & Phrasebook
Wikitravel - Javanese phrasebook
Online. You get what you pay for.
Wikivoyage - Javanese phrasebook
Online. More free stuff.
U.S. Army Special Forces 200-Hour Javanese Familiarization Course
Emphasis on basic communication needs. The “200 hours” refers to contact time in the classroom. Materials themselves evoke a language guide. In self-study, CEFR A0 upon completion.
Javanese Grammars, etc.
Grammar and Inference in Conversation: Identifying clause structure in spoken Javanese (2005), 287 pages, by Michael C. Ewing; John Benjamins Publishing
Grammatical Relations in Javanese (2015), 86 pages, by Suhandano; LINCOM
Javanese Grammar for Students (2nd ed., 2002), 132 pages, by Stuart Robson; Monash Asia Institute
Javanese Grammar for Students (3rd ed., 2014) 122 pages, by Stuart Robson; Monash Asia Institute
Javanese In The Eyes Of Its Speakers (2014), 404 pages, by Suharsono Suharsono; Scholars' Press
Javanese Cats: Owners Manual (2015), 152 pages, by Henry Hoverstone; IMB Publishing
Just checking to see if anyone is actually reading this file.
Javanese Transitive Verbs: A Tagmemic Grammar (1980), 56 pages, by Bintoro; Badan Penyelenggara Seri NUSA
Javanese Dictionaries, etc.
English / Javanese Dictionary: Inggris / Kamus Jawa (2017), 182 pages, by John C. Rigdon; Independently published
Javanese English Dictionary (2002), 829 pages, by Stuart Robson et al.; Periplus Editions
Javanese-English Dictionary (1974), 728 pages, by Elinor C. Horne
Javanese Culture, Society, History, etc.
From Cosmogony to Exorcism in a Javanese Genesis (2001), 264 pages, by Stephen C. Headley; Oxford University Press
La culture javanaise et son histoire: Mythes, religions, art, littérature (2014), 292 pages, by Eric Sukanda et al; Éditions L'Harmattan
Available in FRENCH only.
Language & Social Change in Java: Linguistic Reflexes of Modernization in a Traditional Royal Polity (1985), 240 pages, by Joseph J. Errington; Ohio University Press
Language Style and Social Space: Stylistic Choice in Suriname Javanese (1992), 265 pages, by Clare Wolfowitz; University of Illinois Press
Refusals in Javanese and English: A Comparative Study of Saying 'No' in Two Different Cultures (2019), 23 pages, by Agus Wijayanto ; Journal of Intercultural Communication
Shadows of Empire: Colonial Discourse and Javanese Tales (1996), 375 pages, by Laurie J. Sears; Duke University Press
Speaking through the Silence: Narratives, Social Conventions, and Power in Java (1998), 276 pages, by Laine A. Berman; Oxford University Press
Structure and Style in Javanese: A Semiotic View of Linguistic Etiquette (1988), 306 pages, by Joseph J. Errington; University of Pennsylvania Press
Javanese Readers, Literature, etc.
LibriVox - Javanese
Acoustical liberation of books in the public domain
Asian Languages Reading Level Rated Children's Books - LLORG - January 2020
Javanese Bible / Central Java, Indonesia / KITAB SUCI 062TI / Vinyl Bound with Thumb Index / Formal Translation (2015) by Gottlob Brückner (Translator) – The Bible Society
Note that there are several Javanese versions of the Bible available.
Javanese Qur'an – British Library
Although my searches for a contemporary Javanese version of the Qur'an yielded only the linked archival item above, I would imagine that such printed books exist.
Javanese on YouTube
Enthusiastic, well-meaning, but not exceptionally skilled locals assist you with the basics. Wash, rinse, repeat.
Londokampung - YouTube
|… Londokampung, a native speaker from Surabaya, is easily one of the most famous Javanese-speaking YouTubers. His videos are subtitled in a mix of Indonesian and Javanese, and from the sheer amount of videos he has, he's probably an intermediate learner's best bet for content.
newsflare – News about Java online
Java World – News about Java online
4. IMPROVING THIS FILE?
Please feel at liberty to post your own recommendations and/or comments and I’ll see what I can do about incorporating them into the lists above.
5. SUBSEQUENT COMMENTS
Visitors to this file are encouraged to review the subsequent comments, posted below, as they include members’ suggestions concerning materials and form a running commentary on resources for the study of this language.
Revised format: April 2020