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 Language Learning Forum : Philological Room Post Reply
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Anton R.
Diglot
Groupie
Russian Federation
Joined 4911 days ago

53 posts - 54 votes 
2 sounds
Speaks: Russian*, English
Studies: German, Spanish

 
 Message 1 of 37
31 March 2008 at 10:14am | IP Logged 
What other languages have cases?


Russian: nominative, genitive, dative, accusative, instrumental, prepositional.
German: nominative, genitive, dative, accusative.
Finnish: nominative, accusative, genitive, partitive, adessive, ablative, allative, inessive, elative, illative, essive, translative, abessive, instructive, comitative.

Edited by Anton R. on 31 March 2008 at 10:33am

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Makrasiroutioun
Quadrilingual Heptaglot
Senior Member
Canada
infowars.com
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210 posts - 236 votes 
Speaks: French*, English*, Armenian*, Romanian*, Latin, German, Italian
Studies: Dutch, Swedish, Turkish, Japanese, Russian, Arabic (Written)

 
 Message 2 of 37
31 March 2008 at 11:03am | IP Logged 
Romanian: Nominative/Accusative, Genitive/Dative, Vocative.

Armenian: Nominative, Accusative, Genitive, Dative, Ablative, Locative, Instrumental.

Swedish: Nominative, Possessive/Genitive.

Latin: Nominative, Accusative, Genitive, Dative, Ablative, Vocative, Locative (Old Latin).

Georgian: Nominative, Ergative, Genitive, Accusative/Dative, Instrumental, Adverbial, Vocative.

Icelandic: same as German.

Faroese: same as German, but genitive is dying.

Ancient Greek: Nominative, Accusative, Genitive, Dative, Vocative.

Modern Greek: same, minus the dative.

Persian: none.

Hindi: Subjective, Objective, Vocative.

Arabic (MSA): Nominative, Accusative, Genitive.

Estonian: Nominative, Partitive, Genitive, Illative, Inessive, Elative, Allative, Adessive, Ablative, Translative, Terminative, Essive, Abessive, Comitative.

Tsez: Absolutive, Ergative, Genitive I, Genitive II, Dative, Instrumental, Equative I, Equative II, Possessive, Abessive, Essive, Lative, Ablative, Allative, Inessive, Contessive, Superessive, Adessive, Subessive, Apudessive.

Dutch: Nominative, Genitive, dead Accusative and Dative.

Old English: same as German, but with remnants of an Instrumental case.

Low German: Nominative, Accusative, Oblique.

Bulgarian: Nominative, Vocative.

Sanskrit, Avestan, Proto-Indo-European, and Old Persian: Nominative, Accusative, Genitive, Dative, Ablative, Instrumental, Locative, Vocative.

Slovene: Nominative, Accusative, Genitive, Dative, Locative, Instrumental, but it has three numbers (dual too, which has unique endings).
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Chung
Diglot
Senior Member
Joined 5628 days ago

4228 posts - 8256 votes 
20 sounds
Speaks: English*, French
Studies: Polish, Slovak, Uzbek, Turkish, Korean, Finnish

 
 Message 3 of 37
31 March 2008 at 12:03pm | IP Logged 
Czech, Polish, Ukrainian: Nominative, Accusative, Genitive, Dative, Locative, Instrumental, Vocative

Slovak: Nominative, Accusative, Genitive, Dative, Locative, Instrumental

BCS / Serbo-Croatian: Nominative, Accusative, Genitive, Dative/Locative, Instrumental, Vocative (it's arguable now whether dative and locative are separate since the modern endings have merged)

Hungarian: Adessive, Inessive, Locative, Superessive, Ablative, Delative, Elative, Allative, Illative, Sublative, Terminative, Temporal, Accusative, Instrumental, Causal-Final, Dative, Distributive, Distributive-Temporal, Essive, Translative
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Leopejo
Bilingual Triglot
Senior Member
Italy
Joined 4581 days ago

675 posts - 724 votes 
Speaks: Italian*, Finnish*, English
Studies: French, Russian

 
 Message 4 of 37
31 March 2008 at 12:15pm | IP Logged 
All romance languages and English:

at least three cases: I, me, my in personal pronouns.

;-)
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Vlad
Trilingual Super Polyglot
Senior Member
Czechoslovakia
foreverastudent.com
Joined 5056 days ago

443 posts - 576 votes 
2 sounds
Speaks: Czech*, Slovak*, Hungarian*, Mandarin, EnglishC2, GermanC2, ItalianC1, Spanish, Russian, Polish, Serbian, French
Studies: Persian, Taiwanese, Romanian, Portuguese

 
 Message 5 of 37
31 March 2008 at 12:48pm | IP Logged 
Chung,

I know you know this, but be fair and give us Slovaks our Vocative too :-) I know it has only a couple instances but we have it:-)

By the way, in colloquial Slovak (Southern Slovakia?), vocative is quite wide-spread, but only for some male names.

Róbert - Robi
Jozef - Joži
Fero - Feri
Tomáš - Tomi

and so on.

Edited by Vlad on 31 March 2008 at 12:48pm

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Chung
Diglot
Senior Member
Joined 5628 days ago

4228 posts - 8256 votes 
20 sounds
Speaks: English*, French
Studies: Polish, Slovak, Uzbek, Turkish, Korean, Finnish

 
 Message 6 of 37
31 March 2008 at 1:25pm | IP Logged 
The only vocative that I can think of is Bože for Boh.

I would call out to you informally as "Vlad'o!" just as much as I could say "Vlad'o is eating lunch". Theoretically if Slovak were still using the vocative, shouldn't I call you Vlad'u or Vladimire?

Are those forms with -i nicknames or vocatives? That'd be the first time that I've heard of such a thing. In a comparable way, I call and refer to one of my friends as Zuzka, but I've heard others call and refer to her as "Zuzi" instead. For example they'll say: "Zuzi mi vcera zavolala." and greet her as "Ahoj Zuzi!" I get the impression that Zuzi is just a nominative and is consistent with the pattern of modern Slovak where nominative has absorbed the vocative except for a few relics such as Boh.


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Vlad
Trilingual Super Polyglot
Senior Member
Czechoslovakia
foreverastudent.com
Joined 5056 days ago

443 posts - 576 votes 
2 sounds
Speaks: Czech*, Slovak*, Hungarian*, Mandarin, EnglishC2, GermanC2, ItalianC1, Spanish, Russian, Polish, Serbian, French
Studies: Persian, Taiwanese, Romanian, Portuguese

 
 Message 7 of 37
31 March 2008 at 2:18pm | IP Logged 
Other vocatives that I can think of are:

synu, otče, pane, synku, chlapče, priateľu, cloveče, bratku

When It comes to Pali, Feri, Tomi.. I suspected something and I was right. I think they are the influence of Hungarian:

http://sk.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vokatív

At least that is how I see it. When I use the Feri, Jozi.. It allways reminds me of Hungarian, because that's how I call (Feri gyere ide..and so on) my friends when I speak Hungarian.

Which city is Zuzka from? Is she Zuzi or Hungarian Zsuzsi? Because Slovak Zuzi Nominative I have never heared of in my life and it hurts my eyes to read it:-) Zuzi mi vcera volala... It is very incorrect and is strange for a nickname as well.

But you are right when you say, that I can use this form as Nominative and Vocative both:

Feri pod sem!
Feri cita knihu.

but.. nominative Feri sounds 'nespisovne' not according to rules, because Fero is the correct Nominative form (František).. however Feri Vocative sounds quite good as there is no existing correct form to compare to.

Edited by Vlad on 31 March 2008 at 2:19pm

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Chung
Diglot
Senior Member
Joined 5628 days ago

4228 posts - 8256 votes 
20 sounds
Speaks: English*, French
Studies: Polish, Slovak, Uzbek, Turkish, Korean, Finnish

 
 Message 8 of 37
31 March 2008 at 3:10pm | IP Logged 
If I remember correctly she is from a place near Zvolen. As far as I know she is Slovak. I suspect that if she were a Hungarian Slovak, she would insist that I speak in Hungarian with her instead. That article in Slovak Wikipedia mentions this use of -i and as I suspected, it's taken from the nominative diminutive. It even mentions that dreaded "Zuzi". The article also confirms what I've read in that modern Slovak has discarded the vocative and it exists only as a relic. Its declension has merged with the nominative.


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